مروری بر مهم‌ترین چالش‌های فرآیند گوگردزدایی هیدروژنی برای حذف گوگرد از سوخت‌های فسیلی

نوع مقاله : علمی ترویجی

نویسنده

پژوهشکده توسعه فناوری‌های پالایش نفت، پژوهشگاه صنعت نفت، تهران، ایران

چکیده

استفاده روزافزون از سوخت‌های فسیلی محیط‌زیست را با نرخ فزاینده‌ای آلوده می‌کند. علاوه بر انتشار دی‌اکسیدکربن، احتراق سوخت‌های فسیلی منجر به تولید اکسیدهای گوگرد می‌شود که در محیط‌زیست موجب اسیدی شدن باران، خاک، آلودگی آب‌ها و باعث تشدید بیماری‌های قلبی و تنفسی در انسان می‌شود. علاوه بر این، حضور ترکیبات گوگردی در فرایندهای پالایش نیز نامطلوب است زیرا باعث غیرفعال‌شدن کاتالیست‌ها، خوردگی تجهیزات، تشکیل رسوب و ... می‌شود. به منظور کاهش اثرات زیان‌بار این آلاینده‌ها، در بسیاری از کشورها مقررات زیست‌محیطی سخت‌گیرانه‌ای برای کاهش میزان گوگرد در فراورده‌های نفتی وضع شده است. گوگردزدایی هیدروژنی رایج‌ترین فرایندی است که در پالایشگاه‌ها برای کاهش مقدار گوگرد استفاده می‌شود. این فناوری گوگرد موجود در ترکیبات آلی را در دما و فشار زیاد توسط هیدروژن و در حضور کاتالیست به سولفید هیدروژن تبدیل می‌کند. با این وجود، گوگردزدایی هیدروژنی با چالش‌هایی مواجه است که در این مقاله به بررسی مهم‌ترین آن‌ها پرداخته شده است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

A review on main challenges of hydrodesulfurization process for sulfur removal from fossil fuels

نویسنده [English]

  • Amir Behrouzifar
Petroleum Refining Technology Development Division, Research Institute of Petroleum Industry (RIPI), Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Increasing usage of fossil fuels, is polluting environment with an ascending rate. In addition to carbon dioxide, using crude oil leads to emitting sulfur oxides, which in the environment leads to acidification of rainfall and soil and pollution of water resources, and in human can exacerbate heart and respiratory diseases. Moreover, presence of sulfur in petroleum refining is unpleasant since can lead to catalysis deactivation, corrosion of equipment, scale formation, etc. To decrease effects of these pollutants, in many countries environmental regulations are developed to reduce sulfur in petroleum products. The process which is currently used in refineries to reduce sulfur level is hydrodesulfurization. This technology at high temperature and pressure by using hydrogen and in presence of the catalysts, convert sulfur atom in organic compounds to hydrogen sulfide. However, hydrodesulfurization faces with many obstacles and challenges, which in this paper most important issues in this regards are addressed.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Desulfurization
  • Hydrodesulfurization
  • fossil fuel
  • Pollutant emission
  • environment
 
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