ارتقاء نفت سنگین و ته‌ماند حاصل از پالایش در محیط آب فوق‌بحرانی

نوع مقاله : ترویجی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار گروه پژوهشی انرژی‌های تجدید پذیر، پژوهشگاه نیرو، تهران، ایران

2 استاد دانشکده مهندسی شیمی، دانشکده مهندسی شیمی، دانشگاه تهران

چکیده

نفت سنگین و ته‌ماند حاصل از پالایش به‌دلیل کیفیت نامرغوب و ناخالصی‌های گوگردی‌– نیتروژنی و فلزی در هنگام مصرف یا استفاده در فرایندهای دیگر با چالش مواجه می‌شوند. اخیرا، تمایل برای توسعه روشی جدید در فرایند ارتقاء کاتالیستی-غیرکاتالیستی هیدروکربن‌های سنگین در محیط آب فوق بحرانی وجود دارد. دلیل این امر تغییرات اساسی در خواص فیزیکی-‌شیمیایی آب به‌عنوان حلال تحت آن شرایط می‌باشد، چراکه خواص انحلالی و انتقالی آب در شرایط فوق‌بحرانی دستخوش تغییر فراوانی می‌گردد.‌ هیدروکربن سنگین در این شرایط به‌راحتی در آب حل شده و مقاومت‌های انتقال جرم جهت نفوذ واکنشگر روی سطح کاتالیست حذف می‌شود. آب در شرایط فوق بحرانی دارای دانسیته و ضریب نفوذ بالایی بوده که انباشت کک تشکیل شده بر روی کاتالیست را نیز غیر‌ممکن می‌سازد. این مقاله مروری بر تحقیقات صورت گرفته در این زمینه می‌باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Upgrading Heavy oil and Residua in Supercritical Water

نویسندگان [English]

  • Morteza Hosseinpour 1
  • Shohreh Fatemi 2
1 Renewable Energy Department, Niroo Research Institute (NRI), Tehran, Iran
2 School of Chemical Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

There are manychallenges during utilization of heavy oil and residue due to low quality as well as substantial amount of heteroatoms existed there. Recently, considerable attention has been paid to develop catalytic and non-catalytic heavy oil upgrading in supercritical water (SCW) environment. The reason can be attributed to the substantial adaptation in the physicochemical properties of SCW, including solvation and transport properties, that makes SCW nice candidate for heavy oil treatment. High density and diffusivity of SCW lead to elimination of all mass transfer barriers from reactant diffusion on catalyst surface, while the accumulation of coke over catalyst is suppressed. This article gives a detailed aspects of heavy oil upgrading in SCW.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Supercritical Water
  • Heavy oil
  • Catalytic Upgrading
  • Non-Catalytic Cracking
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