عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسنده [English]چکیده [English]
Heavy crude oil and bitumen production is on average twice as capital and energy intensive as the production of conventional oil. Pipelines are the most convenient means of transporting crude oil from the producing field to the refinery. However, moving heavy crude oil and bitumen is extremely challenging because of their inability to flow freely. Without prior reduction in the heavy crude oil and bitumen viscosity, transportation via pipeline is difficult. This is because of the huge energy required to overcome the high pressure drop in the pipeline due to their high viscosity at reservoir conditions. In this study, different technologies to improve the flow properties of the heavy crude oil and bitumen through pipelines are reviewed and the advantages and disadvantages of each technology are highlighted with the view that the review will provide direction for development of novel technologies for bitumen and heavy oil transportation via pipelines.