چالشهای کاربرد نفت خام سنگین: تشکیل امولسیونهای پایدار و مشکلات انتقال در خطوط لوله

نوع مقاله: علمی ترویجی

نویسندگان

هیات علمی-پژوهشگاه مواد و انرژی

چکیده

کاهش ذخایر منابع نفتی متعارف و افزایش تقاضای جهانی سبب افزایش بهره برداری از نفت سنگین که درصد قابل توجهی از ذخایر نفت خام دنیا را به خود اختصاص میدهد، شده است. تشکیل امولسیونهای پایدار نفت در آب در مخازن هیدروکربوری یا در خلال فرایندهای تولید اجتناب ناپذیر است که سبب ایجاد مشکلات زیست محیطی و افزایش هزینه های انتقال و پالایش میگردد. همچنین ویسکوزیته بالای نفت سنگین مشکلات فراوانی را در خلال استحصال و انتقال ایجاد مینماید. فرایندهای کاهش ویسکوزیته نفت خام سنگین جهت انتقال در خطوط لوله موضوع بسیاری از تحقیقات بوده اند. در این مقاله چالشهای مرتبط به استفاده از این ذخایر انرژی با مروری جامع بر متون علمی مورد ارزیابی قرار گرفته است.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Challenges in using heavy crude oil: formation of stable emulsions and difficulties in pipeline transportation

نویسنده [English]

  • Elham Abdollahzadeh Sharghi
Faculty member-Materials and energy research center
چکیده [English]

Dwindling of conventional oil reserves and increasing global demands have caused increased exploitation of heavy crudes accounting for a large fraction of the world's crude oil resources. Formation of stable water-in-crude oil emulsions in hydrocarbon reservoirs or in production processes are inevitable increasing environmental problems as well as costs of transportation and refining. Heavy crude oil viscosity also makes several problems during extraction and transportation. Viscosity reduction processes of heavy crude oil for pipeline transportation have been subject of many researches. In this paper, challenges involved in use of these energy resources have been evaluated using a comprehensive literature review.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Heavy crude oil
  • Viscosity reduction
  • Asphaltene
  • Crude oil emulsions
[1] Lanier D., Heavy oil- A major source for 21 st century, Heavy crude & tar sands conference, Beijing, China, 1998.
[2] Ashrafizadeh S., N., M., Kamran, Emulsification of heavy crude oil in water for pipeline transportation, Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering, Vol. 71, 2010, pp 205-211.
[3] Hasan Sh., Ghannam M. T., Esmail N., Heavy Crude Oil Viscosity Reduction and Reology for Pipeline Transportation, Fuel, Vol. 89(5), 2010, pp 1095–1100.
[4] Heaton C. A., An introduction to industrial chemistry, Springer, 1996, pp 353-354.
[5] Olah G. A., Monlar A., Hydrocarbon Chemistry, Wiley-IEEA, 2003, pp 6-11.
[6] Langevin D., Poteau S., Henaut I., Argillier J.F., Crude Oil Emulsion Properties and their Application to Heavy Oil Transportation, Oil & Gas Science and Technology –Rev., IFP, Vol. 59 (5), 2004, pp 511-521.
[7] Dicharry Ch., Arla D., Anne Sinquin, Alain Graciaa, Patrick Bouriat, Stability of water/crude oil emulsions based on interfacial dilatational rheology, Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, Vol. 297, 2006, pp 785-791.
[8] Luo P., Wang X., Gu Y., Characterization of asphaltenes precipitated with three light alkanes under different experimental conditions, Fluid Phase Equilibria, Vol. 291, 2010, pp 103-110.
[9] Yang X., Hamza H., Czarnecki J., Investigation of subfractions of Athabasca asphaltenes and their role in emulsion stability, Energy & Fuels, Vol. 18, 2004, pp 770-777.
[10] Khadim M. A., Sarbar M. A., Role of asphaltene and resin in oil field emulsions, Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering, Vol. 23, 1999, pp 213-221.
[11] Xia L., Lu Sh., Cao G., Stability and demulsification of emulsions stabilized by asphaltenes or resins, Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, Vol. 271, 2004, 504-506.  
[12] Spiecker P.M. , Gawrys K. L., Trail Ch. B., Kilpatrick P. K., Effects of petroleum resins on asphaltene aggregation and water-in-oil emulsion formation, Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochem. Eng. Aspects, Vol. 220, 2003, pp 9- 27.
[13] Spiecker P.M., Kilpatrick P. K., Interfacial rheology of petroleum asphaltenes at the oil-water interface, Langmuir, Vol 20, 2004, pp 4022-4032.
[14] Kiran S. K., Acosta E. J., Moran K., Evaluating the Hydrophilic-Lipophilic Nature of Asphaltenic Oils and Naphthenic Amphiphiles Using Microemulsion Models, Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, Vol. 336, 2009, pp 304-313.
[15] Saniere A., Henaut I., Argillier J.F., Pipeline Transportation of Heavy Oils, a Strategic, Economic and Technological Challenge, Oil & Gas Science and Technology – Rev. IFP, Vol. 59 (5), 2004, pp 455-466.
[16] Masseron J., Petroleum Economics, TECHNIP, 1990, pp. 235-237.
[17] Gateau P., Henaut I., Barre L., Argillier J.F., Heavy Oil Dilution, Oil & Gas Science and Technology – Rev. IFP, Vol. 59 (5), 2004, pp 503-509.
[18] Luo P., Gu Y., Effects of asphaltene content on the heavy oil viscosity at different temperatures, Fuel, Vol. 86, 2007, pp 1069-1078..
[19] Schorling P. C., Rahimian D. G., Influence of the Crude Oil Resin/Asphaltene Ratio on the Stability of Oil/Water Emulsions, Colloids and Surfaces, Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, Vol. 152, 1999, pp 95-102.
[20] Friberg S.E., Yang H., Midttun Q., Sjoblom J., Aikens P.A., Location of crude oil resin molecules at an interface-model system, Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspect, Vol. 136, 1998, pp 43-49.
[21] Fingas, M., Fieldhouse B., Studies of the formation process of water-in-oil emulsions, Marine Pollution Bulletin, Vol. 47, 2003, pp 369–396.
[22] Bernard A., Emulsion Stabilization by Amphiphiles and Particles, MSc Thesis, University at Buffalo, State University of New York, May 2012.
[23] Yan N., Gray M.R., Masliyah J. H., On Water in Oil Emulsions Stabilized by Fine Solids, Colloids and Surfaces, Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, Vol. 193, 2001, pp 97-107.
[24] Moran K., Czarnecki J., Competitive adsorption of sodium naphthenates and naturally occurring species at water-in-crude oil emulsion droplet surfaces, Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochem. Eng. Aspects Vol. 292, 2007, pp 87–98.
[25] Spiecker P.M., Gawrys K. L., Kilpatrick P. K., Aggregation and solubility behavior of asphaltenes and their subfractions, Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, Vol. 267, 2003, pp 178-193.
[26] Binks B. P., Lumsdon S. O., Influence of Particle Wettability on the Type and Stability of Surfactant-Free Emulsions, Langmuir Vol. 16, 2000, pp 8622-8631.
[27] Binks B. P., Lumsdon S. O., Catastrophic phase inversion of water-in-oil emulsions stabilized by hydrophobic silica, Langmuir, Vol. 16, 2000, pp 2539-2547.
[28] Danuta M. Sztukowski, Harvey W. Yarranton, “Oilfield Solids and Water in Oil emulsion Stability”, Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 285 (2005) 821-833.
[29] Himran S., Suwono A., Mansoori G.A., Characterization of alkanes and paraffin waxes for application as phase change energy storage medium, Journal of Energy Sources, Vol. 16, 1994, pp. 117-128.
[30] Mansoori G.A., Barnes H.L., Webster G.M., Petroleum Waxes, Chapter 19 in Fuels and Lubricants Handbook, ASTM Int’l, 2003, pp. 525-558.
[31] Mohitpour M., Szabo J., Hardeveld T.V., Pipeline Transportation & Maintenance: A Practical Approach, ASME Press, 2004, pp. 321-333.
[32] Gerez J. M., Heavy oil transportation by pipeline, International Pipeline Conference, 2, ASME, 1996.
[33] Iona M., Process for reducing low density low sulfure crude oil, US Patent, No. US4092238 A, 1976.
 [34] Hansen CH., Hansen Solubility parameters, A User’s Handbook, 2000 by CRC Press LLC.
 [35] Ahmed N.S., Nassar A.M., Zaki N.N., Gharieb H., Formation of Heavy Oil in Water Emulsions for Pipeline Transportation, Fuel, Vol. 78, 1999, pp 593-600.
[36] Hayes M. E., Nestaas E., Hrebenar K.R., Microbial surfactants, Chemtech., 1986, pp 239-243.
[37] Singh A., Van Hamme J.., Ward O. P., Surfactants in microbiology and biotechnology: Part 2. Application aspects, Biotechnology Advances, Vol. 25 (1), 2007, pp 99-121.
[38] Bai J., Zhang T., Fan W., The Synergetic Effects Between Heavy Oil Components and Emulsifier in Heavy Oil in Water Emulsion, Journal of Petroleum science and Engineering, Vol. 69, 2009, pp 189–192.
[39] Pilehvari A., Saadevandi B., Halvaci M., Clark P. E., Oil/Water emulsions for pipeline transport of viscous crude oil, SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, 2-5 October, Houston, Texas, 1988.